What is coal​

A dark brown to black natural solid substances formed from fossilized plants under condition of burial depth with high temperature and pressure which consisting of amorphous carbon with various organic and some inorganic compounds.​

Coal formation​

Coal formation needs long span of time it is thought coal formation began from carboniferous period of geological time scale which spanned 360 million to 290 million years ago. Plate tectonic is liable for debris flow of higher plant and which often subjected to burial depth of sediments. As all living plant is a storage of solar energy through photosynthesis process this solar energy locked into the debris due to burial depth. After a long span of time when a great burial depth is acquired the remains vegetation subjected to high temperature and pressure . High Temperature and pressure caused physical and chemical change in the vegetation and transform it into coal.

Coal Formation Is a Time Consumed  Process


Types of coal



From coal can be an alternative to conventional oil products. Coal to liquids (CTL) can meet our transportation fuel. In South Africa CTL currently provide 20% of their transport needs including 7.5% of jet fuel.

Coal for Sustainable Development

In spite of having a direct role as an energy resource  coal has a significant in sustainable development. Coal mine will continue a critical contributor to the life style and life chances of many society by providing employment, export and royalty revenues. This is especially true for developing countries where coal mining makes a major contribution to national economies allowing their people to address the challenges of poverty and development. Coal is also a key component of steel and cement manufacturing both of which are core to building the  essential infrastructure of growing economies. Now a days coal become the backbone of modern electricity. Coal dominates raw material in the steel manufacturing and supplies 30% of primary energy and 41% of global electricity generation.​

Reducing NO and Trace element

Coal combustion in  the presence of nitrogen in the coal is liable to the formation of Nitrogen oxides. Primarily burner optimization technique can be adopted to minimize  formation of No×  during combustion. Alternatively Selective Catalytic Reduction(SCR) and Selective  Non Catalytic Reduction(SNCR) are used to lower No×   emission by treating the No×    post combustion in the flue gas. Commercially (SCR) technologies has

Uses of Coal

Importance of Coal in Brick Making: in the traditional system bricks used plant log to burn bricks that was not optimistic to both cost and environment. For this reason Bangladesh has already been adopted  smokeless brick making technology introduced by UNDP. UNDP’s suggestion is green brick technology which require coal mixing with clay. Being harmonious to UNDP, SMAR simulates very cost effective coal for both traditional and green bricks Technology users.

Brick Making Is One of The Significant Economic Activity in Bangladesh



Green Brick Technology Mixing Clay with Coal and Pour It in a Machine

 Green Brick Technology Mixing Clay with Coal and Pour It in a Machine
Coal Uses in Steel Production​

Global steel production is largely dependent on coal. 70% of the global steel produced today using metallurgical coal or coking coal. The steel is mainly produced by basic oxygen furnace and electric arc furnace. Basic oxygen furnace currently produce about 70% of the worlds steel. It needs 770 kg of coal to produce 1 ton of steel through this route. Electric arc furnace don’t require coal as raw material but about 29% of steel is produce through this route who are engaging in coal fired power generation.

Coal & Cement

As a prime energy resource coal can be used in cement manufacturing to meet their energy needed. In addition that coal combustion products (CCPs) such as fly ash play an important role in cement manufacturing industry. The environmental benefits of using fly ash in conventional cement industry is that can significantly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG). It also reduce the needed for landfill space, it helps to produce strong and durable concrete, with resistant to corrosion, alkali aggregate expansion, sulphate and other forms of chemical attack

Coal & Transport

Coal derived fuel as well as coal based electricity can play a significant role in responding to growing energy demand in transport sector . Liquid fuel  been used for almost 30 years and is now deployed throughout the world removing between 80-90% of No×   emission at a given plant. Coal is a naturally occuring chemically complex substances which may contain many trace elements including mercury, selenium and arsenic. The combustion of coal can cause of trace elements being released with  potential harmful impact both human heath and environment. A number of technologies are used to confine the release of trace elements including coal washing, particulates control devices, activated carbon injection and furnished bed combustion. SMAR provide processed coal from the mine with a negligible percentage of nitrogen and Trace Element to keep user aloof from irritating procedure to meet environmental demand.​
Reduction of Co2  Emission​

Fossil fuel especially coal continue to be a vital energy source for the power sector in many countries. At the same time coal based power generation is one of the largest source of global co2  emission. High efficiency low emission (HELE) coal technology can help to reduce the co2  emission produced by coal fired power generation while enabling energy source to meet up increasing power demand . Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the process of capturing  waste carbon die oxide from the large point source such as coal based power generation , transporting it to a storage site and depositing in normally an underground geological formation. Both (HELE) and (CCS) is the pathway to meet our global energy needs and our climate goals.


A number of technology have been paid attention day by day to control particulates. Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) are the most widely used technology in the electric field. Both ESP and fabric filters are highly efficient to removing over 99.95% of particulate emission. Wet scrubbers are used to capture both particulates and So2 by injecting water droplets into the flue gas to form a wet by product.​